Videographic Assessment of Tracheal Intubation Technique in a Network of Pediatric Emergency Departments: A Report by the Videography in Pediatric Resuscitation (VIPER) Collaborative

Aaron Donoghue MD, MSCE , Karen O’Connell MD, MS , Tara Neubrand MD , Sage Myers MD, MSCE

Akira Nishisaki MD, MSCE  and Benjamin Kerrey MD, MS

Annals of Emergency Medicine, Copyright © 2021 American College of Emergency Physicians

Study objective

We sought to describe the tracheal intubation technique across a network of children’s hospitals and explore the association between intubation technical adjuncts and first-attempt success as well as between laryngoscopy duration and the incidence of hypoxemia.


We conducted a prospective observational study in 4 tertiary pediatric emergency departments of the Videography in Pediatric Resuscitation Collaborative. Children undergoing tracheal intubation captured on video were eligible for inclusion. Data on intubator background, patient characteristics, technical characteristics (eg, use of videolaryngoscopy and apneic oxygenation), and procedural outcomes were obtained through a video review.


We obtained complete data on first attempts in 494 patients. The first-attempt success rate was 67%, the median laryngoscopy duration was 35 seconds (interquartile range 25 to 40), and hypoxemia occurred in 15% of the patients. Videolaryngoscopy was used for at least a part of the procedure in 48% of the attempts, and it had no association with success or the incidence of hypoxemia. Attempts in which videolaryngoscopy was used for the entire procedure (compared with direct laryngoscopy for the entire procedure) had a longer duration (the difference between the medians was 6 seconds; 95% confidence interval, 1 to 12 seconds). Intubation attempts longer than 45 seconds had a greater incidence of hypoxemia (29% versus 6%). Furthermore, apneic oxygenation was used in 8% of the first attempts.


Among children undergoing tracheal intubation in a group of pediatric emergency departments, first-attempt success occurred in 67% of the patients. Videolaryngoscopy use was associated with longer laryngoscopy durations but was not associated with success or the incidence of hypoxemia.

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