Missed Opportunities to Diagnose and Intervene in Modifiable Risk Factors for Older Emergency Department Patients Presenting After a Fall

Annals of Emergency Medicine, Copyright © 2020 American College of Emergency Physicians

Study objective

Falls are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in adults aged 65 years and older and a common chief complaint in the emergency department (ED). However, the rate of missed opportunities to diagnose and intervene in modifiable fall-risk factors in the ED is unknown. We hypothesize that although ED providers (defined as ED attendings, residents, and advanced care providers) excel at assessing and ruling out injury, they miss the opportunity to identify a large portion of the modifiable risk factors that contribute to a patient’s fall. Our objective is to quantify the number of missed opportunities to identify and reduce fall-risk factors in older adult ED patients presenting after a fall.

Methods

This secondary analysis used data from a prospective cohort study of older patients at a single academic urban ED. The original study investigated the standard ED evaluation after a fall in older adults. All patients in the original study had a falls evaluation conducted at their ED visit by trained research assistants; this served as the standard fall evaluation. We reviewed the charts of study patients and identified modifiable fall-risk factors. We then determined the number of missed opportunities to intervene in these risk factors during the ED encounter; the primary outcome was the percentage of missed opportunities to identify risk factors in older ED patients who fell.

Results

We found that of the 400 patient charts reviewed, 349 patients had a modifiable risk factor for falling. Of those patients with known modifiable risk factors, the ED team missed identifying the factors in 335 patients (96%). The most commonly missed fall-risk factors were visual acuity (147/154; 96%) and the use of high-risk medications (245/259;95%). Gait abnormalities had the lowest rates of missed modifiable risk factors, at 56% of patients (109/196). When a modifiable risk factor was identified and intervened in, it was most commonly done in the ED observation unit by a physician or physical therapist, and often consisted of an outpatient referral or primary care physician follow-up.

Conclusion

Providers frequently fail to identify and intervene in modifiable fall-risk factors in older adult patients presenting to the ED after a fall; this is a missed opportunity. Addressing the risk factors that contributed to the fall during a fall-related ED visit may minimize fall risk and promote safer mobility.

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