Thoracic outlet syndrome: wide literature for few cases. Status of the art

פוסט זה זמין גם ב: עברית

Pietro Emiliano Doneddu1  • Daniele Coraci2,3 • Paola De Franco2 •
Ilaria Paolasso2 • Pietro Caliandro1 • Luca Padua1,2


Despite its low prevalence and incidence, considerable
debate exists in the literature on thoracic outlet
syndrome (TOS). From literature analysis on nerve
entrapments, we realized that TOS is the second most
commonly published entrapment syndrome in the literature
(after carpal tunnel syndrome) and that it is even more
reported than ulnar neuropathy at elbow, which, instead, is
very frequent. Despite the large amount of articles, there is
still controversy regarding its classification, clinical picture,
diagnostic objective findings, diagnostic modalities,
therapeutical strategies and outcomes. While some experts
believe that TOS is underrated, overlooked and very frequent,
others even doubt its existence as a nosological
entity. In the attempt to shed more light on this condition,
we performed a systematic review of the literature and
report evidence and opinions around this controversial
subject. Only articles focused on neurogenic TOS were
considered. Understanding the status of the art and the
underlying reasons of doubts and weaknesses could help
clinical practice and set the stage for future research.
Keywords Thoracic outlet syndrome  Nerve
entrapments  Brachial plexus  Literature review 
Neuropathy  Neurogenic TOS

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